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Free will, Penology -

What if the concept of free will was scientifically proven to be an illusion? That free will is nothing more than an egotistical construct? We pretend to have control of our reality and the choices we make in their lives, but without free will are we excused from the choices we make? Does personal responsibility disappear? Without personal responsibility, how is anyone guilty of anti-social behavior or mens rea?  Joshua Greene and Jonathan Cohen challenge the concept of free will in “For the law, Neuroscience Changes Nothing and Everything”. Greene and Cohen question the philosophical concepts of determinism, free will,...

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Class consciousness, Elites, Sub-elites, The People -

First written 08/10/2019 Elites--The oligarchs have their unique class substrata, but are broadly divided into three main categories: financial, spiritual, and government leaders. The small membership circles vie for control of the levers that move the world with direct and indirect proxy conflict. The elites attempt to distance themselves from conflict, so they may maintain their social networks, which are vital for their survival. Sub-elites--The group of experts who support elites in their control and extraction of wealth from the people. Comprised of professional individuals such as: academics, lawyers, technocrats, and bureaucrats. They are delegated with the task of writing rules for the various...

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A land ethic, Aldo Leopold, Peter Singer -

Developing a comprehensive environmental ethic is essential for the continuance of life on this planet. How our ethic is formed is a matter of debate among philosophers, lawmakers, and society. How will you contribute to this dialogue? 

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Constitution -

Why a written constitution? Some countries have an uncodified or unwritten constitution. The United Kingdom and Canada are two examples. These nations operate by utilizing precedent from case law. The benefits of an unwritten constitution is a nimble legislative process and unfettering of executive power (Constitution Society, 2013). The drawback is the present governing assembly is restrained by the precedent of previous administrations--who may have had different priorities, culture, and practices. And the LORD said unto Moses, Come up to me into the mount, and be there: and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, and commandments...

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Democrat, Political factions, Republican -

What do the Federalist Papers #10 and #51 say about factions? How, when, and why were political parties first formed in the United States? Has the system changed since the founding of the nation? What has remained the same? At the founding of America the writers of the Constitution warned against factions and political parties. This warning has apparently gone unheeded, because today more than ever American citizens are polarized in their political affiliation between the two major parties active within politics. This division between factions has an early beginning within the political landscape and dates back to the very first presidential administration under George...

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